Published on Jan 08, 2016
The following paper gives brief explanation on the mobile robots and its applications in the various purposes with great efficiency and precision in the fields of security, maintenance, modern agricultural techniques, terrain detection and sensing, usage of multirobot its docking and manipulating capabilities and heavy duty applications like automated assembly in aircraft bodies, etc.
The development of intelligent surveillance systems is an active research area. In this context, mobile and multi-functional robots are generally adopted as means to reduce the environment structuring and the number of devices needed to cover a given area.
The feasibility of the approach is demonstrated through experimental tests using a multisensory platform equipped with a monocular camera, a laser scanner, and an RFID device. Real world applications of the proposed system include surveillance of wide areas (e.g. airports and museums) and buildings, and monitoring of safety equipment. Secondly new version of the JL series reconfigurable multi-robot system called JL-2. By virtue of the docking manipulator composed of a parallel mechanism and a cam gripper, every mobile robot in the JL-2 system is able to not only perform tasks in parallel, e.g. moving and grasping, but also dock with each other even if there are large misalignments between two robots.
Long-range terrain perception has a high value in performing efficient autonomous navigation and risky intervention tasks for field robots, such as earlier recognition of hazards, better path planning, and higher speeds. However, Stereo-based navigation systems can only perceive near-field terrain due to the nearsightedness of stereo vision. Many near-to-far learning methods, based on regions’ appearance features, are proposed to predict the far-field terrain.
Mobile robots are the objects which move around in their environment and are not fixed to one physical location. They consist of instrument panels like LASER scanners, monocular cameras and RFID devices for sensing the terrain.They can be controlled by Bluetooth, wireless network of pc, a wireless remote control microcontroller, etc. They are used for reasons like security, maintenance, industrial transports, in military, etc. Mobile robots are the focus of a great deal of current research and almost every major university has one or more labs that focus on mobile robot research. Mobile robots are also found in industry, military and security environments. They also appear as consumer products, for entertainment or to perform certain tasks like vacuum.
Mobile robots may be classified by:
The environment in which they travel:
o Land or home robots. They are most commonly wheeled, but also include legged robots with two or more legs (humanoid, or resembling animals or insects).
o Aerial robots are usually referred to as Unmanned Arial Vehicle (UAVs)
o Underwater robots are usually called Autonomous Underwater Vehicles.(AUVs)
The device they use to move, mainly:
o Legged robot: human-like legs (i.e. an android) or animal-like legs.
o Wheeled robot.
An automated guided vehicle or automatic guided vehicle (AGV) is a mobile robot that follows markers or wires in the floor, or uses vision or lasers. They are most often used in industrial applications to move materials around a manufacturing facility or a warehouse. Application of the automatic guided vehicle has broadened during the late 20th century and they are no longer restricted to industrial environments. Automated guided vehicles (AGVs) increase efficiency and reduce costs by helping to automate a manufacturing facility or warehouse objects behind them in trailers to which they can autonomously attach.
The trailers can be used to move raw materials or finished product. The AGV can also store objects on a bed. The objects can be placed on a set of motorized rollers (conveyor) and then pushed off by reversing them. Some AGVs use forklifts to lift objects for storage. AGVs are employed in nearly every industry, including, pulp, paper, metals, newspaper, and general manufacturing. Transporting materials such as food, linen or medicine in hospitals is also done.
An autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) is a robot which travels underwater. In military applications, AUVs are also known as unmanned undersea vehicles (UUVs). AUVs constitute part of a larger group of undersea systems known as unmanned underwater vehicles, a classification that includes non-autonomous remotely operated underwater vehicles (ROVs) – controlled and powered from the surface by an operator/pilot via an umbilical. Until relatively recently, AUVs have been used for a limited number of tasks dictated by the technology available. With the development of more advanced processing capabilities and high yield power supplies, AUVs are now being used for more and more tasks with roles and missions constantly evolving.
Integrating a simple gripper at the end of the parallel mechanism is a feasible solution to combine the grasping and docking function on reconfigurable mobile robots. The docking ability of JL-2 is enhanced by a 3 DOFs docking gripper and the high docking forces arising from a cam guidance mechanism. It is possible for JL- 2 to realize the docking action in rugged terrains in the future. Although the multi-point mating structure ensures a solid connection, it may introduce an over-constraints problem which results in a poor self-aligning ability around the rotation axis.
The design concept of these robots utilizes a pair of robots in which a primary, easily accessible robot is able to control an inner robot from across a thin panel. This control is performed using magnetic fields and a Lorenz force. The locomotion of the inner robot, even when it carries a heavy payload, can be accomplished through the thin panel by utilizing an energy accumulation strategy. A more detailed design of the feet (a critical component) of the inner robot has been demonstrated, and a functional prototype has been produced that can quickly switch between high frictional engagement and low friction rolling due to its bi-stable design. This property will allow for effective locomotion and reliable gripping as needed.
The integrated gripper and cutter is used to pick fruits such as tomatoes by holding their peduncle. It is a unique universal gripper which can pick up almost any fruit such as apples, grapes, crab apples, cherries, if the fruit peduncles are long enough. The gripper and cutter is small, light, efficient, and simple to operate. It is inexpensive and easy to control and manufacture. Because the gripper and cutter is so light, small robot payload is required. A small robot can be used to drive the gripper and cutter to harvest fruits and vegetables. We described the architecture of the system based on a three-layer scheme that allows for modularity and flexibility, and may supervise a number of basic navigation tasks and specific surveillance tasks.
The control system makes the robot able to execute autonomously multiple heterogeneous task sequences in dynamic environments, since it models the sequential constraints of the tasks, defines the priority among tasks and dynamically selects the most appropriate behaviours in any given circumstance. We also presented the localization and mapping modules that use vision, laser and RFID data.
Then, the implemented modules for abandoned/removed object detection and people detection and following were introduced. Preliminary experimental results are promising and show the effectiveness of the overall system. The implemented tasks provide the first steps toward the development of a fully autonomous mobile surveillance robot.